Mercury

80
Hg
Group
12
Period
6
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
80
80
121
General Properties
Atomic Number
80
Atomic Weight
200.59
Mass Number
201
Category
Transition metals
Color
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Latin word hydrargyrum meaning liquid silver
Crystal Structure
Simple Trigonal
History
Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Indians and has been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to about 1500 BC.

Alchemists thought of mercury as the First Matter from which all metals were formed.

They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Hg
Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature
Physical Properties
Phase
Liquid
Density
13.5336 g/cm3
Melting Point
234.32 K | -38.83 °C | -37.89 °F
Boiling Point
630.15 K | 357 °C | 674.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
2.29 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
59.2 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.14 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
6.7×10-6%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Element
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Bionerd)
Element mercury in liquid form
CAS Number
7439-97-6
PubChem CID Number
23931
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
151 pm
Covalent Radius
132 pm
Electronegativity
2.00 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
10.4375 eV
Atomic Volume
14.82 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.0834 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 4
Applications
Mercury is used in barometers and manometers because of its high density.

Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some 'neon sign' type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.

Mercury is also found in liquid mirror telescopes.

Gaseous mercury is also found in some electron tubes, including ignitrons, thyratrons, and mercury arc rectifiers.
Mercury and most of its compounds are highly toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
196Hg, 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg, 204Hg
Unstable Isotopes
171Hg, 172Hg, 173Hg, 174Hg, 175Hg, 176Hg, 177Hg, 178Hg, 179Hg, 180Hg, 181Hg, 182Hg, 183Hg, 184Hg, 185Hg, 186Hg, 187Hg, 188Hg, 189Hg, 190Hg, 191Hg, 192Hg, 193Hg, 194Hg, 195Hg, 197Hg, 203Hg, 205Hg, 206Hg, 207Hg, 208Hg, 209Hg, 210Hg