Gold

79
Au
Group
11
Period
6
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
79
79
118
General Properties
Atomic Number
79
Atomic Weight
196.966569
Mass Number
197
Category
Transition metals
Color
Gold
Radioactive
No
From the Latin word aurum meaning gold
Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic
History
Gold has been known since prehistoric times and was the first metal used by humans.

Gold artifacts dated to 5000 years ago have been found in Egyptian tombs.

Gold of 98% purity has been found in Nahal Qunah in the ancient kingdom of Israel, dating from about 6000 years ago.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Au
India is the world's largest single consumer of gold
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
19.282 g/cm3
Melting Point
1337.35 K | 1064.2 °C | 1947.56 °F
Boiling Point
3129.15 K | 2856 °C | 5172.8 °F
Heat of Fusion
12.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
330 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.129 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
3.1×10-7%
Abundance in Universe
6×10-8%
Synthetic
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Synthetic made gold crystals by the chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas
CAS Number
7440-57-5
PubChem CID Number
23985
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
144 pm
Covalent Radius
136 pm
Electronegativity
2.54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
9.2255 eV
Atomic Volume
10.2 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
3.17 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1, 2, 3, 5
Applications
Gold is used in coinage and is a standard for monetary systems in many countries.

It is also extensively used for jewelry, decoration, dental work, and for plating.

Gold is used widely in microelectronic circuits to ensure reliable, corrosion-resistant and static-free performance.

Gold leaf, flake or dust is used in some gourmet foods as decorative ingredient.
Gold is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
197Au
Unstable Isotopes
169Au, 170Au, 171Au, 172Au, 173Au, 174Au, 175Au, 176Au, 177Au, 178Au, 179Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 183Au, 184Au, 185Au, 186Au, 187Au, 188Au, 189Au, 190Au, 191Au, 192Au, 193Au, 194Au, 195Au, 196Au, 198Au, 199Au, 200Au, 201Au, 202Au, 203Au, 204Au, 205Au