Bismuth

83
Bi
Group
15
Period
6
Block
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
83
83
126
General Properties
Atomic Number
83
Atomic Weight
208.9804
Mass Number
209
Category
Post-transition metals
Color
Gray
Radioactive
No
From the German Weisse Masse, meaning white mass
Crystal Structure
Base Centered Monoclinic
History
Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery.

The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements.

In 1753, French chemist Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated that this metal is distinct from lead and tin.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Bi
Bismuth has unusually high electrical resistance for a metal
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
9.78 g/cm3
Melting Point
544.65 K | 271.5 °C | 520.7 °F
Boiling Point
1837.15 K | 1564 °C | 2847.2 °F
Heat of Fusion
10.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
160 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.122 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.5×10-6%
Abundance in Universe
7×10-8%
Bismuth
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Bismuth crystal with fancy oxide film
CAS Number
7440-69-9
PubChem CID Number
5359367
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
156 pm
Covalent Radius
148 pm
Electronegativity
2.02 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
7.2856 eV
Atomic Volume
21.3 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.0797 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-3, 3, 5
Applications
Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is used as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers.

Bismuth oxychloride is used in cosmetics, as a pigment in paint for eye shadows, hair sprays and nail polishes.

It has also been used as a replacement for lead in shot, bullets and less-lethal riot gun ammunition.
Bismuth is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
-
Unstable Isotopes
184Bi, 185Bi, 186Bi, 187Bi, 188Bi, 189Bi, 190Bi, 191Bi, 192Bi, 193Bi, 194Bi, 195Bi, 196Bi, 197Bi, 198Bi, 199Bi, 200Bi, 201Bi, 202Bi, 203Bi, 204Bi, 205Bi, 206Bi, 207Bi, 208Bi, 209Bi, 210Bi, 211Bi, 212Bi, 213Bi, 214Bi, 215Bi, 216Bi, 217Bi, 218Bi