Lead

82
Pb
Group
14
Period
6
Block
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
82
82
125
General Properties
Atomic Number
82
Atomic Weight
207.2
Mass Number
207
Category
Post-transition metals
Color
Slate Gray
Radioactive
No
From the Latin word plumbum
Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic
History
Metallic lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey.

The Romans also used lead in molten form to secure iron pins that held together large limestone blocks in certain monumental buildings.

In alchemy, lead was thought to be the oldest metal and was associated with the planet Saturn.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Pb
Pencil leads in wooden pencils have never been made from lead
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
11.342 g/cm3
Melting Point
600.61 K | 327.46 °C | 621.43 °F
Boiling Point
2022.15 K | 1749 °C | 3180.2 °F
Heat of Fusion
4.77 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
178 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.129 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.00099%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure lead bead
CAS Number
7439-92-1
PubChem CID Number
5352425
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
175 pm
Covalent Radius
146 pm
Electronegativity
2.33 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
7.4167 eV
Atomic Volume
18.17 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.353 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, 2, 4
Applications
Large quantities of lead, both as the metal and as the dioxide, are used in storage batteries.

Lead is used as electrodes in the process of electrolysis.

It is added to brass to reduce machine tool wear.

Lead, in either pure form or alloyed with tin, or antimony is the traditional material for bullets and shot in firearms use.
Lead and its compounds are poisonous
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb
Unstable Isotopes
178Pb, 179Pb, 180Pb, 181Pb, 182Pb, 183Pb, 184Pb, 185Pb, 186Pb, 187Pb, 188Pb, 189Pb, 190Pb, 191Pb, 192Pb, 193Pb, 194Pb, 195Pb, 196Pb, 197Pb, 198Pb, 199Pb, 200Pb, 201Pb, 202Pb, 203Pb, 205Pb, 209Pb, 210Pb, 211Pb, 212Pb, 213Pb, 214Pb, 215Pb