Tungsten

74
W
Group
6
Period
6
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
74
74
110
General Properties
Atomic Number
74
Atomic Weight
183.84
Mass Number
184
Category
Transition metals
Color
Gray
Radioactive
No
From Swedish, tung sten meaning heavy stone
Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic
History
Torbern Bergman obtained from scheelite an oxide of a new element in 1781.

In 1783, José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid.

Later that year, in Spain, the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
W
The chemical symbol, W, comes from the original name of the element, Wolfram
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
19.25 g/cm3
Melting Point
3695.15 K | 3422 °C | 6191.6 °F
Boiling Point
5828.15 K | 5555 °C | 10031 °F
Heat of Fusion
35 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
800 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.132 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.00011%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Tungsten
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Tungsten rod with oxidized surface
CAS Number
7440-33-7
PubChem CID Number
23964
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
139 pm
Covalent Radius
162 pm
Electronegativity
2.36 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
7.864 eV
Atomic Volume
9.53 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1.74 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Applications
Tungsten and its alloys are widely used for filaments in electric bulbs and electronic tubes.

Tungsten carbide is of great importance to the metal-working, mining, and petroleum industries.

Tungsten oxides are used in ceramic glazes and calcium/magnesium tungstates are used widely in fluorescent lighting.
Tungsten is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
180W, 182W, 183W, 184W, 186W
Unstable Isotopes
158W, 159W, 160W, 161W, 162W, 163W, 164W, 165W, 166W, 167W, 168W, 169W, 170W, 171W, 172W, 173W, 174W, 175W, 176W, 177W, 178W, 179W, 181W, 185W, 187W, 188W, 189W, 190W, 191W, 192W