Gadolinium

64
Gd
Group
n/a
Period
6
Block
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
64
64
93
General Properties
Atomic Number
64
Atomic Weight
157.25
Mass Number
157
Category
Lanthanides
Color
Silver
Radioactive
No
From gadolinite, a mineral named for Gadolin, a Finnish chemist
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac who separated its oxide.

He observed spectroscopic lines due to gadolinium in samples of gadolinite and in the separate mineral cerite.

The metal was isolated by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Gd
Gadolinium has the highest neutron cross-section among any stable nuclides
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
7.895 g/cm3
Melting Point
1585.15 K | 1312 °C | 2393.6 °F
Boiling Point
3546.15 K | 3273 °C | 5923.4 °F
Heat of Fusion
10 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
305 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.236 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.00052%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure amorphous gadolinium
CAS Number
7440-54-2
PubChem CID Number
23982
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
180 pm
Covalent Radius
196 pm
Electronegativity
1.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
6.1501 eV
Atomic Volume
19.9 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.106 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3
Applications
Gadolinium is used to make gadolinium yttrium garnets which have microwave applications.

It is also used in intravenous radiocontrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Gadolinium compounds are used for making green phosphors for color TV tubes, and in manufacturing compact discs.
Gadolinium is considered to be moderately toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd
Unstable Isotopes
134Gd, 135Gd, 136Gd, 137Gd, 138Gd, 139Gd, 140Gd, 141Gd, 142Gd, 143Gd, 144Gd, 145Gd, 146Gd, 147Gd, 148Gd, 149Gd, 150Gd, 151Gd, 152Gd, 153Gd, 159Gd, 161Gd, 162Gd, 163Gd, 164Gd, 165Gd, 166Gd, 167Gd, 168Gd, 169Gd