Neodymium

60
Nd
Group
n/a
Period
6
Block
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
60
60
84
General Properties
Atomic Number
60
Atomic Weight
144.242
Mass Number
144
Category
Lanthanides
Color
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Greek word neos meaning new, and didymos, twin
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
Neodymium was first identified in 1885, in Vienna, by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach.

It was discovered in didymium, a substance incorrectly said by Carl Gustav Mosander to be a new element in 1841.

Pure neodymium metal was isolated in 1925.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Nd
Most of the world's neodymium is mined in China
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
7.007 g/cm3
Melting Point
1297.15 K | 1024 °C | 1875.2 °F
Boiling Point
3347.15 K | 3074 °C | 5565.2 °F
Heat of Fusion
7.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
285 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.19 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0033%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure neodymium under argon
CAS Number
7440-00-8
PubChem CID Number
23934
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
181 pm
Covalent Radius
201 pm
Electronegativity
1.14 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
5.525 eV
Atomic Volume
20.6 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.165 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3
Applications
Neodymium is used to make specialized goggles for glass blowers.

Neodymium magnets appear in products such as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones, guitar and bass guitar pick-ups and computer hard disks.

Glass containing neodymium can be used as a laser material to produce coherent light.
Neodymium is considered to be moderately toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
142Nd, 143Nd, 145Nd, 146Nd, 148Nd
Unstable Isotopes
124Nd, 125Nd, 126Nd, 127Nd, 128Nd, 129Nd, 130Nd, 131Nd, 132Nd, 133Nd, 134Nd, 135Nd, 136Nd, 137Nd, 138Nd, 139Nd, 140Nd, 141Nd, 144Nd, 147Nd, 149Nd, 150Nd, 151Nd, 152Nd, 153Nd, 154Nd, 155Nd, 156Nd, 157Nd, 158Nd, 159Nd, 160Nd, 161Nd