Antimony

51
Sb
Group
15
Period
5
Block
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
51
51
71
General Properties
Atomic Number
51
Atomic Weight
121.76
Mass Number
122
Category
Metalloids
Color
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Greek word anti plus monos - a metal not found alone
Crystal Structure
Simple Trigonal
History
One of antimony's minerals, stibnite was recognized in predynastic Egypt as an eye cosmetic as early as about 3100 BC.

The first European description of a procedure for isolating antimony is in the book De la pirotechnia of 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio.

The first natural occurrence of pure antimony in the Earth's crust was described by the Swedish scientist and local mine district engineer Anton von Swab in 1783.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Sb
Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
6.685 g/cm3
Melting Point
903.78 K | 630.63 °C | 1167.13 °F
Boiling Point
1860.15 K | 1587 °C | 2888.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
19.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
68 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.207 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.00002%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-8%
Ultrapure
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure metallic antimony piece
CAS Number
7440-36-0
PubChem CID Number
5354495
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
140 pm
Covalent Radius
139 pm
Electronegativity
2.05 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
8.6084 eV
Atomic Volume
18.22 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.243 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-3, 3, 5
Applications
The largest applications for metallic antimony are as alloying material for lead and tin and for lead antimony plates in lead-acid batteries.

Alloying lead and tin with antimony improves the properties of the alloys which are used in solders, bullets and plain bearings.

Antimony trioxide is used as a flame retardant in adhesives, plastics, rubber and textiles.
Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
121Sb, 123Sb
Unstable Isotopes
103Sb, 104Sb, 105Sb, 106Sb, 107Sb, 108Sb, 109Sb, 110Sb, 111Sb, 112Sb, 113Sb, 114Sb, 115Sb, 116Sb, 117Sb, 118Sb, 119Sb, 120Sb, 122Sb, 124Sb, 125Sb, 126Sb, 127Sb, 128Sb, 129Sb, 130Sb, 131Sb, 132Sb, 133Sb, 134Sb, 135Sb, 136Sb, 137Sb, 138Sb, 139Sb