Zinc

30
Zn
Group
12
Period
4
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
30
30
35
General Properties
Atomic Number
30
Atomic Weight
65.38
Mass Number
65
Category
Transition metals
Color
Slate Gray
Radioactive
No
From the German word Zink, of obscure origin
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
Metallic zinc was produced in the 13th century A.D. India by reducing calamine with organic substances such as wool.

The metal was rediscovered in Europe by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746.

He heated a mixture of calamine ore and carbon in a closed vessel without copper to produce the metal.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 2
Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Zn
Zinc is referred to in nonscientific contexts as spelter
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
7.134 g/cm3
Melting Point
692.68 K | 419.53 °C | 787.15 °F
Boiling Point
1180.15 K | 907 °C | 1664.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
7.35 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
119 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.388 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0078%
Abundance in Universe
0.00003%
A
Image Credits: Images-of-elements
A sheet of zinc
CAS Number
7440-66-6
PubChem CID Number
23994
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
134 pm
Covalent Radius
122 pm
Electronegativity
1.65 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
9.3942 eV
Atomic Volume
9.2 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1.16 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2
Applications
Because of its corrosion resistance, zinc is often plated to other metals in a process called galvanization.

Zinc is an essential trace element for animals and plants.

Large quantities of zinc are used to produce die castings, which are used extensively by the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries.
Zinc is not considered to be particularly toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, 70Zn
Unstable Isotopes
54Zn, 55Zn, 56Zn, 57Zn, 58Zn, 59Zn, 60Zn, 61Zn, 62Zn, 63Zn, 65Zn, 69Zn, 71Zn, 72Zn, 73Zn, 74Zn, 75Zn, 76Zn, 77Zn, 78Zn, 79Zn, 80Zn, 81Zn, 82Zn, 83Zn