Copper

29
Cu
Group
11
Period
4
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
29
29
35
General Properties
Atomic Number
29
Atomic Weight
63.546
Mass Number
64
Category
Transition metals
Color
Copper
Radioactive
No
From the Latin word cuprum, from the island of Cyprus
Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic
History
Copper occurs naturally as native copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record.

Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BC in the Middle East.

It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the copper and bronze ages.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 1
Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Cu
Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
8.96 g/cm3
Melting Point
1357.75 K | 1084.6 °C | 1984.28 °F
Boiling Point
2835.15 K | 2562 °C | 4643.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
13.1 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
300 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.385 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.0068%
Abundance in Universe
6×10-6%
Macro
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Jonathan Zander)
Macro of native copper
CAS Number
7440-50-8
PubChem CID Number
23978
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
128 pm
Covalent Radius
132 pm
Electronegativity
1.9 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
7.7264 eV
Atomic Volume
7.1 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
4.01 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Copper is often used for electrical wiring applications and for household plumbing applications.

Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide and as an algicide in rivers, lakes and ponds.

It is also used in cookware and cooking utensils.

Commercially important alloys such as brass and bronze are made with copper and other metals.
Cooking acidic food in copper pots can cause toxicity
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
63Cu, 65Cu
Unstable Isotopes
52Cu, 53Cu, 54Cu, 55Cu, 56Cu, 57Cu, 58Cu, 59Cu, 60Cu, 61Cu, 62Cu, 64Cu, 66Cu, 67Cu, 68Cu, 69Cu, 70Cu, 71Cu, 72Cu, 73Cu, 74Cu, 75Cu, 76Cu, 77Cu, 78Cu, 79Cu, 80Cu