Titanium

22
Ti
Group
4
Period
4
Block
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
22
22
26
General Properties
Atomic Number
22
Atomic Weight
47.867
Mass Number
48
Category
Transition metals
Color
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the Latin titans, the first sons of the Earth, Greek mythology
Crystal Structure
Simple Hexagonal
History
William Gregor found the oxide of titanium in ilmenite in 1791.

Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element in rutile in 1795 and named it.

The pure metallic form was only obtained in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter.

In 1936, the Kroll Process made the commercial production of titanium possible.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 10, 2
Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Ti
Titanium is one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
4.54 g/cm3
Melting Point
1941.15 K | 1668 °C | 3034.4 °F
Boiling Point
3560.15 K | 3287 °C | 5948.6 °F
Heat of Fusion
18.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
425 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0.523 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.66%
Abundance in Universe
0.0003%
A
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
A titanium crystal bar made by the iodide process at URALREDMET in the Soviet era
CAS Number
7440-32-6
PubChem CID Number
23963
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
147 pm
Covalent Radius
160 pm
Electronegativity
1.54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
6.8281 eV
Atomic Volume
10.64 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0.219 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content.

Titanium has potential use in desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water.

Titanium is used in several everyday products such as drill bits, bicycles, golf clubs, watches and laptop computers.
Titanium metal is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, 50Ti
Unstable Isotopes
38Ti, 39Ti, 40Ti, 41Ti, 42Ti, 43Ti, 44Ti, 45Ti, 51Ti, 52Ti, 53Ti, 54Ti, 55Ti, 56Ti, 57Ti, 58Ti, 59Ti, 60Ti, 61Ti, 62Ti, 63Ti