Sodium

11
Na
Group
1
Period
3
Block
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
11
11
12
General Properties
Atomic Number
11
Atomic Weight
22.98976928
Mass Number
23
Category
Alkali metals
Color
Silver
Radioactive
No
From the English word, soda; Medieval Latin, sodanum: a headache remedy
Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic
History
The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols.

It is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt primarily made of hydrated sodium carbonate.

In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy isolated sodium for the first time by electrolysis of dried sodium hydroxide, which had been very slightly moistened.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 1
Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s1
Na
Sodium burns in air with a brilliant yellow flame
Physical Properties
Phase
Solid
Density
0.971 g/cm3
Melting Point
370.87 K | 97.72 °C | 207.9 °F
Boiling Point
1156.15 K | 883 °C | 1621.4 °F
Heat of Fusion
2.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization
97.7 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
1.228 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.3%
Abundance in Universe
0.002%
Sodium
Image Credits: Wikimedia Commons (Dnn87)
Sodium metal from the Dennis s.k collection
CAS Number
7440-23-5
PubChem CID Number
5360545
Atomic Properties
Atomic Radius
186 pm
Covalent Radius
166 pm
Electronegativity
0.93 (Pauling scale)
Ionization Potential
5.1391 eV
Atomic Volume
23.7 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1.41 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1
Applications
Metallic sodium is vital in the manufacture of esters and in the preparation of organic compounds.

Sodium vapor lamps are often used for street lighting in cities.

Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in some fast reactors.

Sodium is also used as an alloying metal, an anti-scaling agent, and as a reducing agent for metals when other materials are ineffective.
Sodium metal should be handled with great care as it cannot be maintained in an inert atmosphere
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
23Na
Unstable Isotopes
18Na, 19Na, 20Na, 21Na, 22Na, 24Na, 25Na, 26Na, 27Na, 28Na, 29Na, 30Na, 31Na, 32Na, 33Na, 34Na, 35Na, 36Na, 37Na